Breakthrough Hypothesis on Autoimmunity in COVID-19

Dr Philip A McMillan

COVID 18-8-20 (21)


Through detailed research on COVID-19, I formulated a theory of autoimmunity to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme II (“ACE-2”) in April 2020. At that time the hypothesis was not regarded by many as plausible, however as the disease continued to baffle scientists and the medical community, the hypothesis gradually gained credence.

My discussions with international immunology experts (China, Canada, US and UK) led me to Professor Bruce Uhal (Michigan State University), the top pulmonary ACE-2 researcher in the world, and we collaborated on a scientific paper explaining the concept of autoimmunity in Covid-19.

The link to our paper is below.

The principle is simple. The viral spike protein binds to serum ACE-2 to trigger an autoantibody response. This may lead to severe disease in people who have elevated levels of serum ACE-2  - the elderly and obese, and those with hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease and diabetes. This hypothesis could explain the symptoms and characteristic patient profiles in Covid-19.

Critical Research papers to support the theory of Autoimmunity in COVID-19

May 2020

COVID-19 - A theory of autoimmunity to ACE-2

McMillan, P; Uhal, B

July 2020

Autoimmunity to ACE2 as a possible cause of...

Townsend, A

August 2020

Immunoserologic Detection and Diagnostic...

Schiaffino, M

September 2020

Auto-antibodies against type I IFNs in patients...

Bastard, P

October 2020

Plasma ACE2 and risk of death or cardiometabolic...

Narula, S

October 2020

IgM autoantibodies recognizing ACE2 are associated...

Casciola-Rosen, L

Interviews with experts on autoimmunity across the world